Research from the World Economic Forum shows that US$ 44 trillion in economic value generation - around half of global GDP - is highly or moderately dependent on nature. That gives some indication of how reliant on nature we are for our work, our food, our homes, our economies. In reality, nature powers all industry and enterprise.

The problem is that we often take what we need from nature without including the cost of environmental degradation in prices and markets.

Now it’s time to change. All countries must properly value nature in economic decision-making and significantly step up finance for biodiversity if we are to have any chance of securing a nature-positive world by 2030. And central banks and financial supervisors must actively address climate change and nature loss. Financial flows from all sources, public and private, must be aligned with nature-positive activity.




Sadly, $1.8 trillion a year in environmentally harmful subsidies from governments are encouraging unsustainable production and consumption, exhausting natural resources, degrading global ecosystems, and damaging planetary health. This is bad news for nature and bad news for a sustainable future.

The new framework must include ambitious targets to urgently assess, reform and repurpose perverse subsidies that harm the environment and to implement and scale up public incentives with nature-positive outcomes. There are many opportunities, such as investing in renewable energy and nature-based solutions that benefit both biodiversity and climate action. Every $1 spent on nature restoration promises to deliver up to $30 in economic benefits, and transitioning to a nature-positive economy could generate annual business opportunities worth $10 trillion and create 395 million jobs by 2030.

Crucially, finance must reach indigenous peoples and local communities who live in and safeguard some of the most biodiverse places on the planet. We cannot hope to meet global targets for nature without their participation, knowledge and leadership. Through an approach called Project Finance for Permanence, for example, governments can strengthen conservation, reinforce the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities, reduce the impacts of climate change, and catalyze economic growth.

further reading

Latest News


© Ralph Frank / WWF

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© Adriano Gambarini  WWF-US

How can finance help address our dual climate and nature crisis?

This discussion paper explores the importance of nature in addressing climate change and the role of finance in supporting a nature positive and net zero economy

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